Kidney stones (renal lithiasis)

Kidney stones (renal lithiasis) are small, hard lumps that form in your kidneys. Kidney stones are made of mineral and acid salts. Kidney stones can be caused by many things. In a common scenario, kidney stones form when urine concentrate, minerals crystallize and agglomerate.

Kidney stones and pain. Pain of kidney stones usually starts on your side or back, under her hips and moves to the lower abdomen and groin. The pain changes with the movement of kidney stones in the urinary tract.

 Kidney stones usually cause no permanent harm. Treatment of pain and drinking plenty of water is part of the treatment is often needed. However, treatment can help prevent the formation of kidney stones in those with increased risk.


Kidney stones may or may not cause signs and symptoms until the stone moves in the ureter-tubes that connect the kidneys and bladder. At one point, the signs and symptoms that can occur are:

• Severe pain in your side or back, under her hips

• Pain that spreads to the lower body and groin

• Pain during urination

• Urine color pink, red or brown

• Nausea and vomiting

• Frequent urination

• Fever and chills when infection occurs

Causes & Risk Factors


Kidney stones are often not defined by a single cause. Several factors are often combined, create the conditions in which a person susceptible to kidney stones.

Kidney stones form when urine-component fluid and various minerals and amino-off balance. When this happens, your urine there are more crystallized substances, such as calcium, oxalate and uric acid, than the liquid. At the same time, there is a substance in your urine that crystallize and clump forming kidney stones. This makes the condition in which kidney stones are more likely to form.

The types of kidney stones:

• calcium stones. Many kidney stones are calcium stones usually form calcium oxalate. High levels of oxalate which can be found in some fruits and vegetables, nuts and chocolate. Your liver also produces oxalate. Food, high doses of vitamin D, gastrointestinal surgery and some metabolic disorders can increase the concentration of calcium or oxalate in the urine. Calcium stones can also occur in the form of calcium phosphate.

• struvite stones. Struvite stones are formed in response to infections, such as urinary tract infections. Struvite stones can develop rapidly and become quite large.

• uric acid stones. It formed in those who become dehydrated, those who eat high-protein foods and those with gout. Certain genetic factors and disorders of the blood-producing tissues also can make you prone to uric acid stones.

• cystine stones. Kidney stones of this type have a little case. These stones are formed in those who have a hereditary disorder that causes the kidneys to produce amino acids (cystinuria) given in large quantities.

• Other Stone. Other rare cases of kidney stones may also occur.

Knowing the type of kidney stone that you experience can help you understand what causes kidney stones are formed and can provide guidance on what you can do to reduce the risk of kidney stones.

Risk factors

Factors that may increase the risk of kidney stones may include:

• Having someone in the family with a case of kidney stones

• Those aged 40 and above, although kidney stones can occur at any age

• Men are more prone to kidney stones

• Dehydration

• Certain foods are high in protein, high in sodium and sugar can increase the risk of some types of kidney stones

• Obesity

• Have an illness or surgery of the digestive tract

• Other medical conditions, such as renal tubular acidosis, cystinuria, hyperparathyroidism, and certain urinary tract infections


Lifestyle changes:

• Drink enough water every day

• Eat fewer foods rich in oxalate, such as spinach, sweet potatoes, tea, chocolate and soy products

• Choose foods low in salt and animal protein

• Eat foods rich in calcium, but restrict the use of calcium supplements