Basal Cell Carcinoma

Basal cell carcinoma is a type of nonmelanoma is the most common skin cancer. This Cancer is most easily treated and can also be spread. Basal cell carcinoma can be fatal, although rare. This is because it can cause damage to the surrounding tissue and bone if not removed.

This cancer has a high recurrence rate. If you ever had a basal cell carcinoma, then you have a chance to experience it again in the next five years.


Basal cell carcinoma is usually found in the body that are often exposed to the sun, especially the head and neck. Even so basal cell carcinoma can occur in the body that are not exposed to sunlight.

Basal cell carcinoma has one of the following symptoms:

• shiny white lump, often with visible blood vessels on the face, ears or neck. Lumps may bleed if ruptured. In people with darker skin, the bump can be dark brown or black.

• Average, scaly, brown or flesh like back or chest. Can grow to a considerable size (between 10 to 15 cm).

• In rare cases can be white and slick scratches. Basal cell carcinoma is the type is readily apparent, but it may be a sign of an attack and special stains morpheaform called basal cell carcinoma.

Causes & Risk Factors


Skin consists of three layers - the epidermis which is the outermost layer, the dermis and subcutis. Basal cell that produces new skin cells in the bottom or base of the epidermis.

Normally, new cells push the skin of dead cells on the skin surface, where the dead skin cells will be wasted. This process is controlled by DNA. But when DNA is damaged - can be due to solar radiation - the death of cells and form new cells does not occur as it should. Skin cells to grow uncontrollably and eventually form a cancerous tumor.

Environmental factors

Just like other diseases in general, basal cell carcinoma occurs due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Many skin cell damage caused by Ultra Violet (UV) rays from the sun. Although research shows the greatest impact occurs in young children and infants, but UV rays are cumulative. So the more often you are exposed to the sun, the greater your chances of getting cancer.

Other environmental factors that can cause basal cell carcinoma include:

• Radiation therapy for a particular disease.

• Toxic chemicals.

• Drugs used to suppress the body's immune system to prevent rejection of organ transplants performed when operating.

Genetic Factors

Some birth defects can increase the risk or cause basal cell carcinoma, among others:

• Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin's syndrome). People with a rare genetic defect has multiple basal cell carcinoma like-waves of the hands and feet, spine abnormalities, and cataracts.

• Bazex's syndrome. It is characterized by the large basal tumor cells on the face and the resulting lack of sweat and body hair.

Xeroderma pigmentosum •. People with xeroderma pigmentosum, which causes high sensitivity to sunlight have a higher risk of sun because they have little or no ability to repair skin damage due to UV rays.

Risk factors

Some factors that increase the risk of basal cell carcinoma include:

• Frequent exposure to sunlight. Sunlight contains UV which can cause basal cell carcinoma.

• white skinned. White people are more susceptible to basal cell carcinoma.

• Gender. Men are more susceptible to basal cell carcinoma.

• Age. About 80 percent of basal cell carcinoma occurs in people aged 50 years and over. But this time the tumor is more common in people with younger age.

• personal or family experience with skin cancer. Never had a basal cell carcinoma will increase the risk of return, as well as if they have a family member with skin cancer.

• immune system-suppressing drugs. Immune system-suppressing drugs to prevent rejection of the transplanted organ may increase the risk of skin cancer because the body's immune system becomes weak.


To prevent basal cell carcinoma, you can take the following steps:

• Avoid the sun during the day

• Use sun protection (eg Anthelios SX)

• Wear clothing that protects the body from sunlight

• Be aware of drugs that make your skin more sensitive to sunlight. Ask your doctor about the side effects of the drugs you use

• Perform regular skin medical checkup.

• Eat enough vitamin D

• Fruits and vegetables may reduce cancer risk