New Hope for Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes

One by one the mysteries of the causes of type 2 diabetes mellitus began to unfold. The researchers Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) has just publicize the findings they that there is one type of protein or special hormone who are found within cells-cells fat which proven helps regulate how blood sugar is controlled and are metabolized for energy in inside the liver. It is said to be open one way for the treatment of type 2 diabetes that affects hundreds of millions of the world's population.

Diabetes this type is not dependent on insulin and occurs in people-people adults (adult onset), differ with diabetes type 1 which relies on insulin and occurs since baby. Type 2 diabetes can be defined as a metabolic disorder characterized by high blood glucose levels due to insulin deficiency and resistance. The ability of pancreatic beta cells is reduced even damaged so the patient started having diabetes, with symptoms such as eating a lot (polyphagia), lots of drinking (polydipsia), and lots of urine (polyuria).

The number of type 2 diabetes cases nearly ten fold type 1 diabetes that occurs because of damage to the pancreas as a baby. Until now it was believed that obesity is a major cause of type 2 diabetes in people who are genetically already carrying the disease gene carriers.

Two-three decades ago was known of the relationship between obesity and type 2 diabetes, but it is unclear whether this type of obesity trigger diabetes or just accelerate. Research in the U.S. shows, with obese people are three times more likely to develop diabetes than those who are not overweight. The older a person, the risk of developing type 2 diabetes is also becoming large. People aged 65 years, for example, is more likely to be attacked than those aged under 20 years.

Diabetes type 2 also known to closely conjunction with hereditary factors. If anyone in your family have diabetes, your chances of contracting diabetes is quite large.

If your mom and dad or grandma and grandpa or aunt or uncle you are suffering from this disease, your chances of developing type 2 diabetes nearly 85 percent. If the father and grandmother have diabetes, your risk is only 60 percent. If the only mother who suffer, then the 22 percent are the risks to you will suffer anyway.

Type 2 diabetes usually occurs in adults due to lifestyle changes, reduced physical activity, and the type of food / beverage-paced fast food and soft drinks. However, type 2 diabetes is now also found in children and adolescents in Asia.

Chronic disease is believed to cause the life expectancy for sufferers ten years shorter than those of non diabetic complications due to coronary heart disease, stroke, and kidney failure. Type 2 diabetes also leads to disability, such as blindness due to retinopathy complications and increased risk by 20 times lower extremity amputations. People with diabetes experience impotence and forgetfulness.


For decades researchers and physicians are faced with a mystery: not all people who are overweight or insulin resistant type 2 diabetes. In fact, quite a lot of people are not very fat this disease. The scientists ago theorize that there is an factor who unidentified who involved in the metabolism of glucose in the liver, and maybe the presence or absence this element, can determine who who exposed to diabetes type 2.

In the edition of the journal Cell Metabolism May 7, 2013, HSPH researchers revealed, the scientific world has long known that one of the key events for the development of type 2 diabetes is the uncontrolled production of glucose from the liver.

"However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive," said Gökhan S Hotamisligil, Head of the Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases, and JS Simmons, professor of genetics and metabolism at HSPH. "We now have identified AP2 as a new hormone released from fat cells that controls this critical function."

Through experiments with mice in the laboratory using cutting-edge technology found that if the amount of excess AP2, diabetes arises. Conversely, if the hormone is blocked or in-switch-off, the production of glucose from the liver can be controlled better so manifestations of type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases can be prevented.

The ability of an organ-in this case fat tissue-are so direct and determine in controlling action another organ, namely liver, supremely interesting, the word Hotamisligil. "We suspect the communication system between adipose tissue and the liver has evolved to help the fat cells give command to the heart to supply the body with glucose in times of nutrient shortage. However, when the fat cells are enlarged lost control of the signal due to the condition of obesity, AP2 levels in the blood rise, poured glucose into the blood stream and can not be cleaned up by other tissues. The result is high levels of blood glucose and diabetes 2. "

FK UI professor who studied diabetes, Sidartawan Soegondo, said the findings of the Harvard scientists is a vital contribution to the development of medical science. "Lately I teach that type 2 diabetes is a disease with multipatologi," he said when contacted on Tuesday (21/5). Now, in addition to organ pancreas, type 2 diabetes is also known to be triggered also by metabolism nine other organs, such as liver and kidney.