Frontal Cortex, The Brain Determinants of Autism

Autism is a brain disorder that affects the child's social interaction skills. As many as 50 percent of autism are caused by chromosomal abnormalities when brain development. In children with autism, a brain region called the frontal cortex consisting of the prefrontal cortex and temporal cortex can not function perfectly.

"It causes the brain could not give orders related expressions, emotions, and social interactions. Commands that exist in parts of the frontal cortex," said psychiatrist dr. Dwijo Saputro Sp.KJ in day seminar Warning World Autism Day, Tuesday (09/04/2013) in Jakarta.

Frontal cortex, the prefrontal cortex has a section which is a cognitive center. This section has executive functions related emotions displayed. It also plays a role in the assessment, creativity, and speaking. While temporal lobe of the brain function hearing, language acquisition, and interpretation of sound.

Brains of children with autism are also problematic in the area of ​​fusion form. This section serves to recognize faces. Dwijo say, in the form of fusion with autism do not respond when shown pictures of faces. "The fusion of form exist in autistic children, but it does not work," he said.

Someone with a brain and without autism also chemically different. This is evidenced research conducted by Prof.. Daniel Geschwind of the University of California, Los Angeles. The research shows, part of the prefrontal and temporal autism produce the same protein. This pattern, according to Geschwind seen in people with autism.

"Whereas in the brain without autism, each part is controlled arrangement of different genes. Arrangement such genes will produce different proteins. However it is not found in people with autism," said Geschwind as reported by the BBC website.

Geschwind initiated research conducted in the UK, USA, and Canada. The samples were 19 and 17, the brain with the brain without autism. Comparison of the results revealed, there are about 209 genes related how brain cells work and communication in a lower level than those without autism. While 235 genes associated with resistance and wound response expressed more strongly.

Other research suggests, people with autism also have a brain nerve cell bodies (neurons) over 67 percent in many parts of the prefrontal cortex, compared to those without autism. Total number of neuronal cells with autism is about 1.9 billion, while non autism 1.7 billion. As a result, the weight of the brain with autism tend to be heavier.

"This indicates the abnormal state. Could increase the potential connection, or just the opposite," said researcher Dr. Eric Courchesne, Director of the National Institutes of Health-University of California-San Diego School of Medicine Autism Center of Excellence. The study was conducted in seven children without autistic brain, and the brain six children with autism.