The term diabetes mellitus leads to several health conditions that affect how the body uses blood sugar (glucose). Glucose is very important for health as the main energy source for the muscles and tissues.

If you have any type of diabetes, it means you have too much glucose. Too much glucose in the blood will cause serious problems. Consists of chronic diabetes type 1 and diabetes type 2.


Symptoms of diabetes varies based on the type of diabetes you have. If you have prediabetes (blood sugar levels are higher than normal but not enough to be categorized as diabetes) or gestational diabetes (elevated blood sugar during pregnancy) may not be experiencing symptoms.

Signs and symptoms of diabetes type 1 and type 2 among others:

• Frequent thirst

• Frequent urination

• Very hungry

• Lost weight suddenly

• Fatigue

• Blurred vision

• If having wound, the wound difficult to heal

• Frequent infections, such as gum or skin infections and vaginal or bladder infections

Type 1 diabetes usually occurs in children and adolescents although basically can occur at any age. Type 2 diabetes is the most common type can occur at any age and is often preventable.

Causes & Risk Factors


To be able to understand about diabetes you must know how the body process glucose normally.

How does glucose normally works

Glucose is the main energy source for the body. Glucose comes from two major sources, namely food and heart. When digesting food sugar is absorbed into the bloodstream, assisted by insulin (the hormone that regulates carbohydrate metabolism). The hormone insulin produced by the pancreas.

In this process the liver acts as a storage warehouse and processing center. For example when you do not eat for some time, the liver releases stored glucose to maintain glucose levels remain normal.

- The cause of type 1 diabetes

In type 1 diabetes, your immune system, which normally function to fight bacteria or even viruses attacking the hormone insulin. This condition makes you lack or no insulin. Rather than be delivered into the cells, sugar will accumulate in the blood stream.

- Causes of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes

In the prediabetes condition - which can lead to type 2 diabetes - and type 2 diabetes, cells become resistant to the hormone insulin. This causes the pancreas is unable to produce enough insulin. Instead of flowing into the cell, the sugar will accumulate in the blood. The exact cause is unknown although excess fat and passive behavior is an important factor.

- The cause of gestational diabetes

During pregnancy, the placenta produces hormones to sustain the pregnancy. This hormone makes the cells more resistant to insulin. As the enlargement of the placenta in the second and third quarter, then the more the hormone produced.

Normally, the pancreas will respond by producing more insulin. But sometimes it is not able to respond pancreas. This makes a lot of glucose accumulate in the blood and is not absorbed into the cells.

Risk factors

Diabetes risk factors based on the type of diabetes.

- Risk factors for type 1 diabetes

Although the exact cause of type 1 diabetes is not known, heredity may influence. Another factor is the disease caused by a virus.

- Risk factors for type 2 diabetes

• Fat. The more fat in your body tissue, the higher the resistance to insulin.

• Passive behavior. Passive behavior will make the body burn fat. Physical activity will help control it and more and more use of glucose for energy, the more sensitive your cells to glucose.

• Heredity.

• Age. Risk increases with age where physical activity tends to decline.

• Gestational diabetes. If you had gestational diabetes when pregnant, the risk of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes will increase later. If you deliver the baby weighs more than 4 pounds then you are also at risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

• Polycystic ovary syndrome. Characterized by irregular menstrual periods, hair grows too much and obesity.

Other conditions associated with diabetes include:

• High blood pressure

• Cholesterol


Type 1 diabetes can not be prevented. However, type 2 diabetes can be prevented by adopting a healthy lifestyle.

• Eat a healthy diet low in calories and fat

• More physically active, especially with exercise

• Maintain a healthy weight

Many types of skin cancer can be prevented formation, among other things:

• Avoid the sun between the hours of 10 noon to 4 pm

• Use sunscreen

• Use sun protective clothing

• Be aware of certain medications, such as antibiotics, cholesterol, birth control pills, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and acne medication isotretinoin.

• Check regularly skin health

• Sports leather for those aged 40 years and over