Colds are viral infection of the upper respiratory devices such as the nose and throat. Colds are usually painful, although it did not hurt. Usually people who have experienced a cold, wet nose, sore throat and cough. Some patients will experience watery eyes, sneezing and nasal congestions, or it could be all of them. In fact, there are more than 200 types of viruses can cause colds and symptoms that occur vary.

Most adults exposed to a cold two to four times a year. Children in particular in the pre-school may be exposed to cold between six to ten times each year. Most people recover from the flu about a week to two weeks. If symptoms do not improve it is advisable to contact your doctor.


Cold symptoms usually seem about one to three days after exposure to a cold virus. Signs and symptoms that may appear are:

• Line a wet nose

• Itching and pain in the throat

• Cough

• Nasal congestion

• Little pain in the body or mild headache

• Sneezing

• Watery eyes

• Mild fever (over 39 Celsius)

• Less fatigue

Mucus in the nose may become thick and yellow or green and certainly flow out. What makes a cold different from other viral infections is generally you will not have a high fever. You also will not experience significant fatigue colds.

Causes & Risk Factors


There are more than 200 different types of viruses can cause colds. Rhinovirus is the most numerous and the virus is most contagious. Cold viruses enter your body through the mouth or nose. The virus can be spread through the air when a sick person coughing, sneezing or talking. Moreover, it can also spread through hand contact with someone who is ill or borrowing something, such as supplies, towels, toys, or phone. Touching your eyes, nose or mouth after contact will increase your chances of contracting a cold.

Risk factors

Cold viruses almost always exist in the neighborhood. However, the following factors may increase the chances of developing a cold:

• Age. Infants and children pre-school age are particularly vulnerable to cold because they do not have the endurance development on most of the virus. But the immature immune system is not the only thing that causes children vulnerable. They also tend to spend a lot of time with other children and often do not properly wash their hands and cover your nose and mouth when they cough or sneeze.

• Immunity. When get older, the immunity against viruses that cause colds is growing. Even so you still may have a cold when exposed to a cold virus, an allergic reaction that causes shortness or have a weak immune system. All these factors increase the risk of colds.

• Season. Neither children nor adults are more susceptible to colds in the fall and winter. That's because many people prefer to spend time indoors. In a place where do not have winter, colds are more prevalent during the rainy season.


There is no vaccine developed for the common cold, it is because the cold can be caused by a different virus. But you can take anticipatory measures to slow the spread of cold viruses.

• Wash your hands. Clean hands thoroughly and often, and teach your children the importance of washing hands. Bring a bottle of alcohol-based hand sanitizer containing at least the alcohol content of 60 percent and use it to clean your hands when water is not available.

• Clean your equipment. Keep the kitchen and bathrooms kept clean especially when a member of your family colds. Clean up toys after playing.

• Use a tissue. Always use a tissue when sneezing and coughing. Dispose of the tissue that has been used and then wash your hands properly. Teach children to sneeze or cough in the curve of the elbow if no tissue. That's the way to protect their mouth without using hands.

• Do not share. Do not share drinks or equipment with other family members. Use your own or disposable cups when you or others ill. Label the cup or glass with the name of the person who has a cold.

• Take care to keep away from cold. Avoid close contact with time or with someone who has a cold.


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